もともと軍事分野の専門家であるアーミテージとは違い、ゼーリックは経済分野(財務省と通商代表部)の人なので、同じ国務副長官であっても日米、米中関係を見ている観点はかなり違っていました。

アーミテージは中国の軍事的拡大を警戒し、日米同盟を強化させようとしていたのに対し、ゼーリックの方は経済分野における中国との共通利害をもとに、中国を世界システムに取り込み、長期的には経済部門における中国国内の変化を政治構造の変容へと結びつけようとする立場のようでした。

現副長官であるネグロポンテの立場はよく分かりませんが、キャリア外交官でありイラク大使や諜報部門のトップも経験しているので、その道に通じた副長官として今はイラク問題に忙殺されているのでしょう。

ゼーリックについては「NikkeiEYE プロの視点」にコラム(ゼーリック国務副長官辞任報道の裏側 2006/6/12)があるのでそちらを参考にしてください。一部引用すると次のように書いてあります。

第2次ブッシュ米政権で対中政策の総括を任されているゼーリック氏は共和党外交サークルの中でもピカ一の切れ者として知られる。そのゼーリック氏が昨年秋、新しい対中政策として、「中国=レスポンシブル・ステーク・ホルダー(責任ある利害共有者)」というアプローチを考案。先の米中首脳会談ではブッシュ大統領もこれを承認し、中国との新しい関係構築に向けて一歩踏み出したばかりだったはずだ。水面下で一体、何が起こっているのだろうか?



インタービュー番組

前回リンクを張っておいたチャーリー・ローズとのインタビュー番組での発言も、この「ステーク・ホルダー(責任ある利害共有者)」についての説明がほとんどです。一部筆記してみましたが、時間がかかるので途中で止めてしまいました。若干、聞き取りのミスがあるかもしれませんが、興味のある方は読んでみてください。ゼーリックが政権を離れて約一年が過ぎたわけですが、彼が考案した対中路線に変化はないようなので、この路線は今後も引き継がれていくと思われます。

_____________________

開始時間 2:35

Rose: Let me start with China. Tell me what you were trying to say to the Chinese. What were you trying to say to them about being a stakeholder?

Zoellick: I was trying to capture the fact that if you are in China these days, it's understandable that you face huge interal challenges. And so if you were President Hu and Wen Jiabao and wake up in the morning, you'd think about the problems of the world versus the coastal areas, urban areas, with just huge internal migration. But because of their very success over the past 25 years, they are now influential in the world. And, in a sense, the United States and other countries have had a strategy to integrate China into the world community over the past 25 years. And if you consider everything from commodity markets to currency markets to counterfeiting to captal markets, you say China is integrated. So now the question is integration to what end. So part of the messages for the United States and others is what should be the goal and part of the message for China is to recognize that it has a stake in this internationa system that it is benefited from. And therefore it has some responsibilities that runs everything from North Korea and Iran to international economy.

Rose: OK, it explains part of some of these and not in others, but to make the point that I read something, maybe 6 month ago, after you had made the major point about being a stakeholder where the Chinese government etiher said or had printed in one of their newspapers that the Chinese had to come to accept the fact that China had a role in the world and that was increasingly significant role. What role do they want to play?

Zoellick: That is why I think this is particulary important time to engage them. I think they are trying to figure that out, Charlie. Just give you one of the most fascinating evidence points on this. The Chinese have developed documentary history series--and these things don't happen accidentally on the history channel in China--about the rise of great powers, starting with Portugal in 1500 to the United States. And I haven't seen it but it's telling you something. It's telling you that the Chinese are now recognizing they are influential and they are trying to determine their role in the system. And, in a sense, the engagement about stakeholder is another way of saying this is a rising power in the system. History is literate with examples of rising powers, not being well integrated in the system. How do we do it in a way that it serves mutual interests. Part of the message that I was trying to relate to the Chinese was to say, you may not have created the system the United States and others created after World War II. But if you look at the history of 20th century, pretty bad for China. You had invasion. You had revolutions, tens of millions of people died. The past 25 years have been good, because Deng Xiao Ping linked the reform of China to the internationa system. So you have a stake in the security of that system and economic ballances. And so, frankly, there is some evidence that the Chinese recognize this. And, coming back to the speech, at first, they weren't so sure how to take it. There was even a little ... I wish I could've said I designed it this way, but there wasn't a clarity about what stakeholder really meant. So that led to ..., they didn't know, and there was a trouble with translation about the meaning. And so I said, later I wish I thought of this. But that led to a debate in China about the meaning of the word, which was exactly what I really wanted to create. But the key thing, Charlie, is that this is an on-going process. And one of the points is that it's not just a speech or a word. It's a question of working with China and trying to identfy the points of mutual interests, and recognizing there will be differences too.

_____________________

開始時間 21:15

Rose: Was there something important to be learned in terms of the role China played vis-a-vis North Korea that perhaps we can use in Darfur and perhaps we can use in Iran?

Zoellick: Definitely, it builds on the same logic, which is that I think, going back to your question, the Chinese understand their self-interest in not only working with the United States but trying to have an international system that serves the mutual interst. In the case of North Korea, they don't want North Korea to have nuclear weapon because they are afraid of its effect on South Korea and its effect on Japan. On the other hand, they don't want to have North Korea collapsed because that's a big problem on their border. So part of what the U.S. diplomacy has done is that we believe you can be influential but we are not saying your responsibilty. And we can use the six party process to try to offer the North Koreans two paths. One path is if you are going to stick with nuclear weapon, you are going to be further isolated, and the other five parties will try to prevent slipping out nuclear material, which is a real danger and fear. But there is a positive path. If you take the positive path, we will take you step by step

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soudenjapan

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soudenjapan、45歳、コンサルタント。やっと英語が楽になり20年かかって英語を握ったと感じる。と思ったのもつかの間、そこには広大な未知の領域が残っているようだ。

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